Satirical cartoons are designed to lampoon their intended targets. These are often, but not always, political in nature. Satirists sometimes portray their targets in stocks and pillories, a graphic and effective device for making the target appear ridiculous and undermining their credibility.
Here are some examples of satirical cartoons:
Albinia, Countess of Buckinghamshire (pictured), was notorious for her gambling parties in the late 18th and
early 19th centuries. She was particularly fond of faro, an illegal gambling game. Albinia and her aristocratic lady friends were often
attacked in satirical prints because of their gambling and decadent lifestyles. |
In 1796 Lord Chief Justice Lord Kenyon had proclaimed: "If any prosecutions [against gambling] are fairly brought before me and the parties are justly convicted, whatever may be their rank or station in the country, though they should be the first ladies in the land, they shall certainly exhibit themselves in the Pillory".
All eyes turned to Lady Buckinghamshire's infamous gaming tables. Albinia and her friend, Lady Archer, were reported to the authorities for playing the illegal game of faro. They were charged and found guilty of running a faro table, and taking in a little too much money on it (Albinia was also a cheat). Despite Lord Kenyon's threat to have illicit gamblers pilloried, the aristocratic pair were merely fined.
This cartoon is entitled “Exaltation of Faro's daughters”. Albinia, Countess of Buckinghamshire (left) and Lady Archer are shown in the pillory, as the mob pelts them with rotten vegetables. Below, a notice reads: "Cure for Gambling, published by Lord Kenyon in the Court of King's Bench". The cartoon perhaps satirises Lord Kenyon as much as it does Albinia and Lady Archer.
Despite all this unwelcome attention, Albinia remained unrepentant. Her gambling and general decadence continued unabated until her death in 1816.
Other contemporary satirists could not resist Faro's Daughters. Here are some of their cartoons:
The Pic Nic Society was a fashionable theatrical club founded in London in 1802, which attracted various decadent aristocrats....and also the attention of satirists.
The man and the woman sitting in the ornate stocks in the centre are Colonel Greville and Lady Buckinghamshire. Yes, its Albinia again (see "Faro's Daughters"
above). The first performance by the Society was a comedy set in Spain under the Moors, hence the Moorish costumes.
As players at an unlicensed theatre these amateur actors colud potentially be threatened with vagrancy proceedings, which is why the satirist has depicted them in the stocks: "The new and elegant St Giles cage. Erected on purpose for the dillitanti theatrical society." (1802) by Charles Williams.
A Dream of the Pillory
Beware the Coalition
In the Interest of Labor and Morality
Other satirical American cartoonsUnfortunately I have no information on the following American cartoons. If anyone can shed some light on either of these, I would be most grateful.
In the early 20th century, the suffragette movement campaigned for women to be able to vote in UK elections. This attracted a great deal of hostility from the government and others who disagreed with their cause. This was componded by the militant methods employed by some of the more extreme suffragettes, who were prepared to use violence to further their cause. |
This cartoon was published in "Modern Man" on 5 October 1912. The magazine did not disguise its abhorrence towards the more militant suffragettes, referring to them as "female criminal lunatics".
The target of this cartoon, Mary Leigh, was a hard line suffragette. She was arrested and imprisoned regularly for leading violent demonstrations. In 1909, Mary and two other women climbed on to a roof in Birmingham to disrupt a meeting where the Prime Minister, Herbert Asquith, was making a speech. They threw roof tiles at the police and Asquith's car. In 1912 in Dublin, Mary attempted to assassinate Asquith by throwing a hatchet at him. She missed her target and instead injured John Redmond, an Irish nationalist leader.
During her imprisonment, Mary went on hunger strike, a tactic often employed by suffragettes. This resulted in her being force fed, although concern for her deteriorating health led the authorities to release her early.
The suffragettes eventually achieved their goal when equal voting rights were accorded to women in 1928. Mary Leigh lived into her 90s, dying in 1978.
In 1805 Lady Charlotte Douglas (pictured) made a number of accusations against Princess Caroline, the wife of the future King George IV. Lady Douglas alleged that Princess Caroline was an adulteress, and that her adopted son was a bastard from an illicit affair. Lady Douglas also claimed that Princess Caroline had been rude about the royal family, and had touched her in an inappropriately sexual way. A secret commission investigated these claims and found no substance to them. No action was taken against Lady Douglas, possibly to avoid further scandal.
In 1813 Lady Douglas reiterated these allegations in writing, and swore an oath to their veracity. This sparked yet more outrage, mainly against Lady Douglas as Princess Caroline was popular with the public. The punishment for perjury was the pillory, so Lady Douglas should have been publicly pilloried for making false allegations under oath. But once again the matter was swept under the carpet as a damage limitation exercise. However public opinion was in no doubt that Lady Douglas should have stood in the pillory.
The cartoon depicts a pillory outside Montagu House, the residence of Princess Caroline. The upper half of the pillory is being raised in readiness for Lady Douglas, who can be seen on the platform surrounded by a festive crowd.
The speech bubbles are numerous and hard to read, but here are a few examples. A woman holds out her apron to collect mud (or horse manure) shovelled up by a man who says: "Give her enough! She wants a mask to hide her shameless face." A woman with a large basket on her arm cries: "Buy my nice Pillory Nuts! My Warm Douglas gingerbread." A man with a wooden leg stands beside his pannier-laden donkey shouting: "Fine high flavour'd rotten Eggs sixpence a hundred!" A man holds out his hat, saying, "Lets have a hat full! a rotten Egg is a good antagonist to a corrupt heart." A boy holds out his hat, saying, "master give us a few I'm a desperate good marksman." In Montagu House, Princess Caroline looks out on the spectacle, saying: "This is my hour of Triump [sic]".
A cartoon by Thomas Tegg, published in 1815. This was part of a tradition of "humorous" images of "tyrannical" wives which continued through the 18th century and into the 19th century. The picture is based upon "The Taming of the Shrew", portraying the husband as Petruchio who is taming his errant wife. Above the bed is a sign "Love Honour and Obey", a reminder of the wife's marriage vows.
Although it may appear wildly misogynistic to modern eyes, this cartoon is very much a product of its time. An age when a wife was basically her husband's property, and she was expected to obey him. A married woman was not allowed to own any property in her own right, and she could be lawfully beaten by her husband.
In July 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars, a large British military force departed for the island of Walcheren in the Netherlands. The military objectives were soon overshadowed by an epidemic of disease that largely destroyed the army. By the time the expedition ended in February 1810, the fever had caused the death of 60 officers and 3,900 soldiers. Almost half of the force had been struck down by disease, and six months later around 11,000 men were still registered sick.
The conduct of the army's senior medical officers (particularly Lucas Pepys and Thomas Keate) was severely criticised in a parliamentary inquiry. In this cartoon (dated 18 September 1810) Pepys and Keate are shown in a pillory, surrounded by dead and dying soldiers. There are also large quantities of spoof medical stores, lampooning the incompetence of the medical officers.
Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, was one of Britain's greatest naval heroes. Cochrane was the inspiration for the eponymous hero of the Horatio Hornblower books and television series. He was also the basis for the Captain Jack Aubrey books, on which the film "Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World" was based.
The headstrong and outspoken qualities which made Cochrane a brilliant captain worked against him when he campaigned for naval and parliamentary reform as a politician. In 1806 he was elected a Member of Parliament, where he railed against inefficiency and corruption at the Admiralty and among his fellow MPs. This made him a lot of powerful enemies. Eventually they moved against Cochrane, who was falsely implicated in the 1814 Stock Exchange fraud (which was based on false rumours about the death of Napoleon). At his trial Cochrane was fined £1,000, sentenced to the pillory and a year in jail, expelled from the Commons, and stripped of his knighthood.
The cartoon on the left satirises Cochrane and his alleged accomplices in the fraud. However there was a subsequent public outcry against the Cochrane' sentence, particularly the pillory part. The cartoon on the right satirises the establishment, not Cochrane. Even Napoleon Bonaparte came to Cochrane’s defense. “Such a man should not be made to suffer so degrading a punishment,” he said at the time. The standing in the pillory was remitted, perhaps because Sir Francis Burdett, a fellow MP, proclaimed his intention of standing with Cochrane, but more likely because the government feared a riot.
After his release from prison, Cochrane left Britain to perform some of his greatest exploits while commanding the navies of Brazil, Chile, Peru and Greece in their struggles for independence.
Cochrane was 53 years old in 1828 when he returned permanently to Britain. A new king, William IV, was sympathetic to his cause, and Cochrane was reinstated and made rear admiral. In 1847, with his knighthood restored, he was made commander in chief of the navy’s North American and West Indian stations. Cochrane died in 1860 and is buried in Westminster Abbey in London.